Planning, monitoring, executing, and working memory are crucial skills for sustaining attention, cognitive flexibility, inhibition of impulses, and goal-directed persistence. Executive functioning plays a major role in reading, structuring essays, solving math problems, completing homework assignments, performing well on tests, and becoming active learners in the classroom.
The signs and symptoms of learning disabilities often differ from one individual to another. Particular issues can limit the ability to learn key skills, such as writing, math, and reading. Students may show difficulties with time management, attention, abstract reasoning, organization, and short and long-term memory. Children with learning disabilities need timely support and intervention, tailored to the needs of the individual.
Improving language processing can strengthen the ability to: Understand written instructions; acquire new and unfamiliar vocabulary words; use correct grammar; structure paragraphs; learn not to omit words or sounds when writing; organize the steps for thinking and writing to improve executive functioning;, identify main ideas and supporting details; deepen reading comprehension to improve monitoring while reading; and learn to construct mental imagery, summarize, preview texts, activate background knowledge, take advantage of graphic organizers, and more!
Improving decoding and spelling (encoding) skills can increase fluency, reading comprehension, predicting, using think-alouds to monitor reading comprehension, constructing mental imagery, summarizing, previewing texts, determining the meaning of unfamiliar words while reading, activating background knowledge, increasing attention to characters and settings, taking advantage of graphic organizers, and more!
Addressing writing disorders can help students adapt to keyboarding, improve written expression, learn not to omit words when writing, organize the steps for thinking and writing to help with executive functioning difficulties, master grammar, learn paragraph structure, identify main ideas and supporting details, improve spelling skills, collaborate with occupational therapists to facilitate fine motor and visual/ spatial difficulties, and more!
Addressing Dyscalculia and other math disorders can improve foundational/computational math skills such as addition, subtraction, division, fractions, geometry, and algebra. This, in turn, can help with higher level math learning and math number sense. Learning structure and organization helps understand math concepts, retain math facts, and break down word problems. All of this is enhanced by multisensory teaching, such as kinesthetics, hands-on learning, and more!
The focus here is on learning to understand the perspectives and emotions of others. Visual and tactile learning facilitate better understanding of abstract concepts, such as sarcasm, nuance, metaphor, and non-literal words and phrases. Also addressed: Breaking instructions into parts, improving transitioning, increasing sustained attention, strengthening executive function and deductive reasoning, and more!
The pace of instruction must be closely monitored to prevent an overload of information. Skills include: adapting to keyboarding, which helps improve written expression; facilitating transitioning between tasks; creating homework routines; understanding figurative language and idiomatic expressions; tapping into verbal skills to discuss concepts that aid learning; breaking tasks into parts; preparing in advance for tasks; learning to verbally initiate with peers and teachers when confused, and more!